Repetition – A recurring musical phrase.
Sequence – A musical phrase repeated at a different pitch.
Imitation - Where one voice (instrument) copies music played by another.
Ostinato – A repeated pattern in classical music.
Retrograde – A musical phrase played backwards.
Riff – A repeated pattern in pop/rock/blues/jazz
Improvisation – Music created as it is played. Common in Jazz or a classical concerto Cadenza.
Call and Response - Question and answer phrases between instruments.(pregon and choro in Salsa)
Drone - A continually sounding (long held) note.
Walking bass – Steady bassline moving by step – popular in Jazz, Blues and Pop.
Stabs – Short, accented notes by the horn section (brass) in disco, salsa and Jazz.
Leitmotif - short melody used in film or programme music.